E-Bike History In China

Development story

In 1983, Shanghai Bicycle No. 2 Factory successfully produced a permanent DX-130 electric bicycle. This is the first electric bicycle that has been recorded and formed into an industrialized country in China. It uses a 150W column motor and a common lead-acid battery for 24V cars. This car was put into production in 84 years and produced a total of 45,000 units in 91 years.

805 vehicles were exported. In 1995, Tsinghua University developed an electric bicycle using a hub motor.

In 1999, Qianhe in Shanghai, the duik in Suzhou, and the mainland pigeons in Nanjing made breakthroughs in the research and development of electric bicycles. The electric bicycles they produced all use 36V/10Ah maintenance-free lead-acid batteries and rear-wheel drive hub motors, which have ended the multi-year situation in various performance indicators and won the market recognition for the first time. Since then, electric bicycles have entered a fast-growing road.

On May 28, 1999, the State Bureau of Quality and Technical Supervision issued the national standard GB17761-1999 "General Technical Conditions for Electric Bicycles", which was implemented on October 1 of the same year. This standard was revised on the basis of the original light industry standard QB "General Technical Conditions for Electric Bicycle Safety".

In 2001, the National Bicycle Information Center held an electric bicycle information exchange meeting and held an electric bicycle training (travel mileage) competition. This competition has strongly promoted the development of electric bicycle technology.

In 2002, the Shanghai Bicycle Association and the Consumers Association formulated the "Shanghai Electric Bicycle Consumption Dispute Resolution". The precedents for solving the quality disputes of electric bicycles have been opened, and they have followed suit throughout the country.

On August 25, 2018, the Certification and Supervision Commission of the General Administration of Market Supervision issued an announcement on the transfer of electric bicycle products from licensing to mandatory product certification management arrangements. The production license management of electric bicycle industrial products has been transferred to the implementation of compulsory product certification (hereinafter referred to as CCC certification). The transition period begins from August 1, 2018 to April 14, 2019. The production license and CCC certification management during the transition period. Coexistence, before April 14, 2019, electric bicycle products should be manufactured, sold or used in other business activities with a valid production license or CCC certification. [4]

On August 25, 2018, the transition from the production license management of electric bicycle industrial products to the implementation of compulsory product certification began on August 1, 2018 and ended on April 14, 2019. [4]

On October 18, 2018, the Beijing Municipal Traffic Management Bureau officially promulgated the "Beijing Electric Bicycle Transition Period Registration and Access Management Measures", and the traffic control department reiterated that the "non-standard" for the temporary identification was not applied from May 1, 2019. Electric bicycles must not be on the road. From November 1st, 2021, only compliant electric bicycles with hanging number plates can be used on the road. [3]

Certification management editor

On August 25, 2018, the Certification and Supervision Commission of the General Administration of Market Supervision issued an announcement on the transfer of electric bicycle products from licensing to mandatory product certification management arrangements. The production license management of electric bicycle industrial products has been transferred to the implementation of compulsory product certification (hereinafter referred to as CCC certification). The transition period begins from August 1, 2018 to April 14, 2019. The production license and CCC certification management during the transition period. Coexistence, before April 14, 2019, electric bicycle products should be manufactured, sold or used in other business activities with a valid production license or CCC certification. [4]

Related development editor

In January 2002, Nanning explicitly prohibited electric bicycles from entering the road.

On July 16, 2002, China National Light Industry Federation issued the revised task of GB17761-1999 "General Technical Conditions for Electric Bicycles" (hereinafter referred to as the new electric bicycle standard), and required to be completed in 2003. On September 12 of the same year, a drafting group led by the National Bicycle Standardization Center and 20 units was established.

In August 2002, the Beijing Public Security Bureau issued a notice stipulating that electric bicycles will be banned from the road on January 1, 2003.

In April 2003, the “Approval Draft” for the new electric bicycle standard was completed.

In August 2003, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province strictly prohibited electric bicycles from driving in urban areas.

In March 2004, some electric bicycle manufacturers and several experts jointly wrote a letter to the National Standardization Management Committee, and expressed disagreement over the new electric bicycle standard "Approved Draft".

On April 28, 2004, the National Bicycle Standardization Center held a coordination meeting in Shanghai on the new electric bicycle standard “Approved Draft”, and 18 units participated. The meeting discussed some of the challenge clauses in conjunction with the new electric bicycle standard "Approval Draft".

On May 1, 2004, the new Law of the People's Republic of China on Road Traffic Safety was promulgated. This law bans the provisions of the original "Road Traffic Safety Law" that bicycles are not allowed to be equipped with power units. However, it is emphasized that the types of non-motor vehicles that should be registered according to law shall be stipulated by the people's governments of provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government according to local conditions. The law also stipulates that bicycles with auxiliary power shall be driven on non-motorized lanes at a speed of no more than 15 kilometers per hour.

On May 24, 2004, the Comprehensive Business Department of the China National Light Industry Council held a demonstration meeting in Beijing with 68 representatives from all over the country. The meeting passed the indicator of the maximum speed of electric bicycles of 20 kilometers per hour, but there are three opinions on the weight indicators: 1. Appropriately increase the weight by 2-5 kg as a mandatory clause. 2. Increase the weight to 48 kg as a mandatory clause. 3. According to the original standard of 40 kg, but the original mandatory clause was changed to the recommended clause.

Released on July 12, 2004, GB7258-2004 "Safety Technical Conditions for Motor Vehicle Operation", which was implemented on October 1 of the same year, was first defined as a moped: the highest design speed is no more than 50km/h regardless of the driving method. And if an internal combustion engine is used, a two- or three-wheeled vehicle with a displacement of not more than 50 mL, including two-wheeled mopeds and three-wheeled mopeds, but does not include two wheels of electric drive with a maximum design speed of not more than 20 km/h. vehicle. This standard has laid the foundation for the drafting of electric motorcycles and electric mopeds in the future, which has not attracted the attention of the electric bicycle industry.

On June 8, 2005, the National Bicycle Standardization Technical Committee held an enlarged standardization committee in Shanghai, with more than 20 participants. The meeting discussed the content of the new electric bicycle standard “Approval Draft” revised after the Beijing Argument in May 2004 and the content of the “Draft for Review”. Finally, an agreement was reached, and the signature agreed to the key indicators of the new electric bicycle "Draft for Review": the maximum speed of 20 kilometers per hour and the weight of not more than 48 kilograms were approved by the National Standardization Administration.

But it has not been approved yet, and it is four years.

In August 2005, Taiyuan, Wuhan, and Mingling prohibited electric bicycles from entering the road.

In 2005, the Zhuhai Municipal People's Congress passed regulations to prohibit electric bicycles from driving in urban areas since July of that year.

At the end of 2005, Beijing opened a ban on electric bicycles, allowing electric bicycles that meet national standards to be registered.

In 2005, the output of electric bicycles in China exceeded 10 million.

On November 6, 2006, the Guangzhou Municipal Public Security Bureau issued the "Notice on the prohibition of electric vehicles and other non-motor vehicles equipped with power devices not allowed to travel on the road."

On December 1, 2006, Haikou City banned electric bicycles.

On January 1, 2007, the daily state took the lead in strictly controlling electric bicycles in Jiangsu. From now on, the newly purchased electric bicycles of Changzhou citizens cannot obtain the license issued by the Public Security Bureau. Unlicensed electric bicycles are not allowed to go on the road. The electric bicycle license plate certificate is valid for 5 years and will expire at the expiration date.

Starting from January 1, 2007, 12 streets including Beiling Street and Beijing Street in Shenyang City are prohibited from passing electric bicycles.

In February 2007, the National Automobile Standardization Technical Committee Electric Vehicle Subcommittee and the Motorcycle Subcommittee jointly organized and absorbed 11 units related to the industry. It took half a year and four easy drafts to be completed: GB24155-2009 "Electric Motorcycles and Safety requirements for electric mopeds, GB/T24156-2009 "Test methods for dynamic performance of electric motorcycles and electric mopeds", GB/T24157-2009 "Electric motorcycles and electric mopeds energy consumption rate and driving mileage test Method", GB/T24158-2009 "General Technical Conditions for Electric Motorcycles and Electric Mopeds", "Draft for Comment". And on the Internet for comments.

Electric bicycles refer to the use of batteries as auxiliary energy on the basis of ordinary bicycles, and the installation of electric motors, controllers, batteries, steering handles and other control components and display instrumentation system of electric-mechanical integration of personal vehicles.

According to data from the “China Electric Bicycle Industry Innovation Summit Forum” in 2013, China’s electric bicycles have exceeded 200 million units in 2013, and the “new national standard” for electric bicycles, which has been controversial, will also be introduced. The new national standard is expected to set off a major revolution in the electric bicycle industry.

On January 16, 2018, the revised draft National Standard for Electric Bicycle Safety Technical Specifications issued by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology was published on the 16th. On May 16, 2018, the State Administration of Market Supervision and the National Standardization Administration approved the newly revised "Safety Technical Specifications for Electric Bicycles". [1-2] On August 25th, the transition period from the production license management of electric bicycle industrial products to the implementation of compulsory product certification began on August 1, 2018 and ended on April 14, 2019.

"Non-standard" electric bicycles that have not applied for temporary signs since May 1, 2019 are not allowed to travel on the road. From November 1st, 2021, only compliant electric bicycles with hanging number plates can be used on the road. [3]

Chinese name Electric bicycle The whole vehicle quality is not more than 55 kg. The tire width is not more than 54 mm. The speed is not more than 25 km/h. The output power is not more than 400w.

For the development history of electric bicycles in China, the industry generally agrees that there are three stages of development: the primary stage of electric bicycles, the stage of initial production and the stage of rapid development.

The initial stage of electric bicycles is also known as the early experimental production phase of electric bicycles, in terms of time, from 1995 to 1999. This stage is mainly to explore the key technologies of the four major parts of electric bicycles, motors, batteries, chargers and controllers. In terms of R&D and production, the company mainly collects information, tracks technology, organizes market observations, and conducts small-scale market trials. It also makes electric bicycles enter the consumer's field of vision and is gradually accepted and accepted by them. From a technical point of view, the early electric bicycles, the new battery can only travel about 30 kilometers at a time, the battery life is short, the climbing ability is poor, easy to wear, and the motor is also brushless gearless motor. However, the accumulation of this period has laid the foundation for the scale of this industrialization in terms of talents, technology and product research and development.

The reason why the second stage is called the initial production scale is because there are several opportunities to promote electric bicycles during this period, making the electric bicycles that are struggling in the initial stage ushered in spring and more. The development of the industry has entered a large-scale, and the most valuable of these opportunities are the “ban on motorcycles” in each city and the “SARS” in 2003.

This period of time generally agrees that it was between 2000 and 2004. During this period, with the breakthrough of key technologies and the continuous improvement of the performance of electric bicycles, electric bicycles became motorcycles and bicycles. The replacement product, which is fast, environmentally friendly, convenient and cheap, also stimulates the market's demand for electric bicycles. In the growing market demand, the enterprises that have been researching and developing have risen rapidly, and some new enterprises have begun to enter. Their investment in electric bicycles has also increased, which has led to rapid expansion of production capacity (see Table 1.1 for details). Moreover, the companies that have quickly come up this time are all big-handed operations, and have already left behind the older generation of R&D and production companies. However, some large-scale enterprises represented by well-known brands have already formed, and according to the difference between the north and the south, they also formed three industrial clusters represented by Jiangsu Wuxi, Zhejiang and Tianjin.

The third stage is from 2005 to the present, this stage is the speeding stage of China's electric bicycles, which is dubbed by the industry as the “spiting stage”. During this period of time, with the fierce competition between enterprises greatly stimulating the advancement of technology and the proliferation of new technologies, the technical level of the whole industry has been greatly improved, the battery life and capacity have increased by 35%, and the motor has a single brush. The development of toothed motors has become the mainstream of brushless high-efficiency motors, with a five-fold increase in life, nearly 30% improvement in efficiency, and a 3.5-fold increase in climbing and load capacity. At the same time as the performance is improved, the manufacturing cost is also greatly reduced, and the price power is reduced to 21%; in the controller system and the charging system, the technical level is also greatly improved. In particular, there has been great progress in battery technology and motor technology. The technical breakthroughs in lead-acid batteries for electric vehicles have led the international market, and the Zhejiang Changxing plate, Kang Lien, which is led by Tianneng and Chaowei, has formed. The Jiangsu section represented by Shuangdeng and the Guangdong section represented by Ruida. The battery also has a single lead-acid battery to evolve many types of high-performance batteries, and the emergence of lithium batteries has further promoted the development of electric bicycles, especially the simple models. In terms of motors, the invention of permanent magnet brushless motors has accelerated the pace of industry development. The key to the performance of the motor is the performance of the ferromagnetic material. Among the various permanent magnet materials, the rare earth permanent magnet material has the most superior performance. China is recognized as a major country in the world of rare earth resources and a strong manufacturing country of rare earth products. Due to the good performance, low price and strong manufacturing capability of rare earth magnetic materials, the BLDC (brushless DC permanent magnet motor) system, which is expensive in the international market, has been widely used in Chinese enterprises. The electric bicycle industry has thus obtained a unique resource advantage. From the perspective of the total production and sales of the industry, in 2005, the total output of various light electric vehicles (including electric bicycles) of hundreds of enterprises nationwide is expected to exceed 9 million, and the export is about 2 to 3 million, achieving an industrial output value of 200. Billion, profits and taxes are about 6 billion yuan, and nearly 1 million people are employed in related production and service areas. China's light electric vehicle production and sales have accounted for more than 90% of the world, and China has become the world's largest producer, consumer and exporter of light electric vehicles.

Birth history

In China in the 1980s, some people developed electric bicycles and constantly improved their construction. It was not until the beginning of this century that electric bicycles were widely promoted and entered countless families. Those who have made great contributions to the development of electric bicycles include: Mr. Wang Peiyuan, former director of Shanghai Bicycle Research Institute, and Li Zhijian, chairman of Hangzhou Jianye Electric Vehicle Co., Ltd., etc. Electric bicycles have become a means of transportation and energy saving.